Patterns, designs and activities: unifying descriptions of learning structures

Patrick McAndrew, Peter Goodyear, James Dalziel

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    In this paper, we examine emerging ways to describe and structure learning material, learning tasks and learning situations. In particular, we consider three different approaches, looking at common issues and differences in emphasis. These approaches are: learning patterns, inspired by the architectural patterns of Alexander; learning design, as described in the IMS Learning Design specification and which itself draws on Educational Modelling Language (EML) developed at The Open University of the Netherlands and learning activities as used in the Learning Activity Management System (LAMS).
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)216-242
    Number of pages27
    JournalInternational Journal of Learning Technology
    Issue number2-3
    Publication statusPublished - 2006


    • learning design
    • e-learning activities
    • learning technology standards
    • learning patterns


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