Patterns of care and outcomes of men with germ cell tumors in a high-volume Australian center

Malmaruha Arasaratnam*, Bavanthi Balakrishnar, Megan Crumbaker, Sandra Turner, Amy J. Hayden, Andrew Brooks, Manish I. Patel, Howard Lau, Henry Woo, Simon Bariol, Howard Gurney

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aim: To evaluate disease presentation, treatment practices, and outcomes of patients with germ cell tumor (GCT) treated in a high-volume cancer center in Australia. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 609 patients diagnosed with GCT in the Sydney West Cancer Network between 1990 and 2013. Cause and date of death, and second malignancy information was sourced from The Centre for Health Record Linkage. Results: The median age was 33 years (range, 14-85). Primary site was testis in 590 (96.9%), mediastinum in nine (1.5%), and retroperitoneum in nine (1.5%). History of undescended testis was present in 48 (7.9%). Pure seminoma was seen in 334 (54.8%), with 274 (82.0%) being stage I. There was a decline in use of adjuvant radiotherapy from 83% in 1990-1997 to 29% in 2006-2013. Nonseminoma GCT (NSGCT) was diagnosed in 275 (45.2%), with 162 (58.9%) being stage 1. Active surveillance has increased as the initial treatment, from 58% between 1990 and 1997 to 89% between 2006 and 2013. Metastatic disease at presentation was seen in 162 (26.6%): 55 (34.0%) seminoma and 107 (66.0%) NSGCT. With median of 15-year follow-up, 18 (3.0%) have died from GCT and 70 (11.5%) from all causes. Ten-year overall survival was 93% and GCT-specific survival was 97%. Forty patients developed a secondary malignancy, with 38 receiving chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. Conclusions: This large Australian series illustrates a changing pattern of care and outcomes and compares them favorably with other series. This serves as a basis for future comparison of outcomes for this malignancy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e23-e31
Number of pages9
JournalAsia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number2
Early online date21 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • germ cell tumor
  • survival outcomes
  • treatment trends


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