Protein glycosylation has received much attention due to its multiple functional roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Paucimannose is a common mannosidic N-glycoepitope in invertebrates and plants but has only recently been detected in vertebrates. Herein, we demonstrate the presence of paucimannosidic epitopes specifically in early postnatal neural progenitor cells (NPCs) between postnatal day 0 and 7 in mouse brain suggesting a possible role in the development of NPCs. Paucimannosidic epitopes were also detected in human glioblastoma cells and human macrophages by immunofluorescence and mass spectrometric analysis. Its expression was significantly increased after proliferation arrest indicating its importance in the regulation of cell proliferation. This hypothesis was further strengthened by reduced cell proliferation after the application of paucimannose-reactive Mannitou antibody into culture medium of growing cells. Most interestingly, this reduction in cell proliferation upon the administration of Mannitou antibody could also be observed in vivo in the subventricular zone of early postnatal mouse brain. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that paucimannosylation directly influences cell proliferation in various vertebrate cell types including early postnatal neural stem cells.