PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors in melanoma treatment

Past success, present application and future challenges

Jenny Lee, Richard Kefford, Matteo Carlino*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

26 Citations (Scopus)


Anti-programmed death (PD)-1 antibodies have now become the standard of care for advanced melanoma, with two drugs gaining US FDA approval in recent years: nivolumab and pembrolizumab. Both have demonstrated significant activity and durable response with a manageable toxicity profile. Despite initial success, ongoing challenges include patient selection and predictors of response, innate resistance and optimizing combination strategies. In this overview, we take a closer look at the history and development of therapeutic targets to the PD-1/PD-ligand (L)1 pathway, clinical evidence, availability of biomarkers and their limitations in clinical practice and future strategies to improve treatment outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)733-746
Number of pages14
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016

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