Periprocedural effects of statins on the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury

A systematic review and trial sequential analysis

Nelson Wang, Pierre Qian, Tristan D. Yan, Kevin Phan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a potential complication in coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have suggested that statins may play a role in reducing rates of CI-AKI, however it is not clear how firm the current evidence is. Objectives The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis to determine the effects of statins in lowering CI-AKI rates in CAG and PCI. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to include all RCTs comparing statins (treatment arm) versus low-dose statins or placebo (control arm) as pretreatment for CAG and/or PCI. A traditional meta-analysis and several subgroup analyses were conducted using traditional meta-analysis with relative risk (RR), trial sequential analysis, and meta-regression analysis. Results 14 RCTs met our inclusion criteria giving a total of 2992 statin treated (49.6%) and 3041 control patients (50.4%). There was a significant reduction in CI-AKI in the statin group compared to controls (3.7% vs 8.3%, RR, 0.46; p = < 0.00001). Trial sequential analysis using a relative risk reduction threshold of 20%, power 80% and type 1 error of 5%, indicated that the evidence is firm. A greater risk reduction in CI-AKI in the statin group significantly correlated with higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR; p = 0.003) Conclusions The present trial sequential analysis provides support for statins in reducing the incidence of CI-AKI in patients undergoing CAG/PCI. This effect appeared to be greater in patients with higher EGFR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-152
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Volume206
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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