Petrogenesis and stratigraphy of the high-Ti/Y Urubici magma type in the Parana Flood Basalt Province and implications for the nature of 'Dupal'-type mantle in the South Atlantic Region

David W. Peate*, Chris J. Hawkesworth, Marta M S Mantovani, Nick W. Rogers, Simon P. Turner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

122 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The high-Ti/Y Urubici (or Khumib) magma type of the Parana Etendeka large igneous province has a restricted spatial extent, near the southeast Brazilian coast and in the northern Etendeka (Namibia). Urubici flows are interbedded with low-Ti/Y Gramado flows. Flow correlations indicate that local topographic relief was important in controlling emplacement of flows, and that lavas near the coast have undergone up to 1 km of post-magmatic uplift relative to inland areas. Urubici magmas have undergone extensive fractional crystallization (MgO <5.5 wt %). Stratigraphic variations high-light complexities of mixing and minor crustal assimilation indicative of open-system magmatic plumbing. The least contaminated samples have high La/Nb (~1.5) and (Tb/Yb)(N) (~2.5), Sr-Nd isotopes close to Bulk Earth (87Sr/86Sr(i) ~0.7050; ε(Nd)(i) -2.7), and Dupal Pb isotopes with unradiogenic 206Pb/204Pb (~17.6). These features are similar to those of the Walvis Ridge DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) Site 525A basalts that define the EM1 oceanic mantle component, and many are also shared with local Cretaceous alkalic magmas that are inferred to be lithospheric mantle melts. Low 206Pb/204Pb material found in the Urubici and Site 525A basalts is not seen as a mixing end-member within the modern Tristan plume system or in South Atlantic mid-ocean ridge basalt. An origin from lithospheric mantle material, delaminated and dispersed within the asthenosphere following continental break-up, is preferred. Thus the South Atlantic Dupal mantle anomaly cannot be considered as a single entity: Urubici flood basalts and Walvis Ridge Site 525A basalts have a relatively shallow origin within originally lithospheric mantle, whereas the Tristan plume is a deep mantle upwelling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-473
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Petrology
Volume40
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1999
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Crustal assimilation
  • Dupal mantle anomaly
  • Lava stratigraphy
  • Lithospheric mantle
  • Parana flood basalts

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