Petrogenesis of a hybrid cluster of evolved kimberlites and ultramafic lamprophyres in the Kuusamo Area, Finland

Hayden Dalton*, Andrea Giuliani, Hugh O'Brien, David Phillips, Janet Hergt, Roland Maas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Kimberlites are often closely associated, both in time and space, with a wide variety of alkaline ultramafic rock types, yet the question of a genetic relationship between these rock types remains uncertain. One locality where these relationships can be studied within the same cluster is the Karelian craton in Finland. In this study we present the first petrographic, mineral and whole-rock geochemical results for the most recently discovered kimberlite cluster on this craton, which represents an example of the close spatial overlap of kimberlites with ultramafic lamprophyres. The Kuusamo cluster incorporates seven bodies [Kasma 45, Kasma 45 south, Kasma 47, Kalettomanpuro (KP), Kattaisenvaara (KV), Dike 15 and Lampi] distributed along a 60 km NE–SW corridor. Hypabyssal samples from KV, KP, Kasma 45 and Kasma 47 consist of altered olivine macrocrysts and microcrysts and phlogopite phenocrysts in a groundmass of perovskite, apatite, spinel, ilmenite, serpentine, and calcite. These petrographic features combined with mineral (e.g. Mg-rich ilmenite, Al–Ba-rich, Ti–Fe-poor mica) and whole-rock incompatible trace element compositions (La/Nb = 0·8 ± 0·1; Th/Nb = 0·07 ± 0·01; Nb/U = 66 ± 9) are consistent with these rocks being classified as archetypal kimberlites. These Kuusamo kimberlites are enriched in CaO and poor in MgO, which, combined with the absence of chromite and paucity of olivine macrocrysts and mantle-derived xenocrysts (including diamonds), suggests derivation from differentiated magmas after crystal fractionation. Samples from Lampi share similar petrographic features, but contain mica with compositions ranging from kimberlitic (Ba–Al-rich cores) to those more typical of orangeites–lamproites (increasing Si–Fe, decreasing Al–Ti–Ba), and have higher bulk-rock SiO2 contents than the Kuusamo kimberlites. These features, combined with the occurrence of quartz and titanite in the groundmass, indicate derivation from a kimberlite magma that underwent considerable crustal contamination. This study shows that crustal contamination can modify kimberlites by introducing features typical of alkaline ultramafic rock types. Dike 15 represents a distinct carbonate-rich lithology dominated by phlogopite over olivine, with lesser amounts of titaniferous clinopyroxene and manganoan ilmenite. Phlogopite (Fe–Ti-rich) and spinel [high Fe2+/(Fe2+ + Mg)] compositions are also distinct from the other Kuusamo intrusions. The petrographic and geochemical features of Dike 15 are typical of ultramafic lamprophyres, specifically, aillikites. Rb–Sr dating of phlogopite in Dike 15 yields an age of 1178·8 ± 4·1 Ma (2σ), which is considerably older than the ∼750 Ma emplacement age of the Kuusamo kimberlites. This new age indicates significant temporal overlap with the Lentiira–Kuhmo–Kostomuksha olivine lamproites emplaced ∼100 km to the SE. It is suggested that asthenospheric aillikite magmas similar to Dike 15 evolved to compositions akin to the Karelian orangeites and olivine lamproites through interaction with and assimilation of MARID-like, enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle. We conclude that the spatial coincidence of the Kuusamo kimberlites and Dike 15 is probably the result of exploitation of similar trans-lithospheric corridors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2025-2050
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Petrology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019


  • Karelian Craton
  • kimberlite
  • magma mixing
  • mica zoning
  • mineral chemistry
  • ultramafic lamprophyre

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