Lamproites are among the most enigmatic mantle generated melts, and are typically abundant in phlogopite. We investigated the major and trace element chemistry of phlogopite crystals from Mediterranean lamproite occurrences in Spain, Serbia and Turkey. The most primitive lamproite samples were selected in order to evaluate the generation of the different phlogopite populations in their distinct mantle setting(s).Phlogopite hosted in Mediterranean lamproites can be grouped into different compositional arrays on the basis of their major element chemistry using Al2O3, FeOT and TiO2 concentrations. Contents of Cr, F and presumably Ti allow discrimination of the macrocrysts into phlogopite phenocrysts, which are liquidus and near-liquidus phases, and mantle xenocrysts. Further distinction among different populations of mantle-derived phlogopite can be achieved, considering trace element and isotopic ratios. The latter also distinguish between crustal and asthenospheric imprints on the source of the lamproitic parental melt.