Non-Abelian anyons can exist as pointlike particles in two-dimensional systems and have particle exchange statistics which are neither bosonic nor fermionic. Like in spin systems, the role of fusion (Heisenberg-like) interactions between anyons has been well studied. However, unlike our understanding of the role of bosonic and fermionic statistics in the formation of different quantum phases of matter, little is known concerning the effect of non-Abelian braid statistics. We explore this physics using an anyonic Hubbard model on a two-legged ladder which includes braiding and nearest-neighbor Heisenberg interactions among anyons. We study two of the most prominent non-Abelian anyon models: the Fibonacci and Ising types. We discover rich phase diagrams for both anyon models and show the different roles of their fusion and braid statistics.