Physical and chemical conditions in methanol maser selected hot cores and UCH ii regions

C. R. Purcell, S. N. Longmore, M. G. Burton, A. J. Walsh, V. Minier, M. R. Cunningham, R. Balasubramanyam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


We present the results of a targeted 3-mm spectral line survey towards the eighty-three 6.67 GHz methanol maser selected star-forming clumps observed by Purcell. In addition to the previously reported measurements of HCO + (1-0), H 13CO + (1-0) and CH 3CN (5-4) and (6-5), we used the Mopra antenna to detect emission lines of N 2H + (1-0), HCN (1-0) and HNC (1-0) towards 82/83 clumps (99 per cent), and CH 3OH (2-1) towards 78/83 clumps (94 per cent). The molecular line data have been used to derive virial and local thermodynamic equilibrium masses, rotational temperatures and chemical abundances in the clumps, and these properties have been compared between subsamples associated with different indicators of evolution. The greatest differences are found between clumps associated with 8.6 GHz radio emission, indicating the presence of an Ultra-Compact H ii (UCH ii) region, and 'isolated' masers (without associated radio emission), and between clumps exhibiting CH 3CN emission and those without. In particular, thermal CH 3OH is found to be brighter and more abundant in UCH ii regions and in sources with detected CH 3CN, and may constitute a crude molecular clock in single dish observations. Clumps associated with 8.6 GHz radio emission tend to be more massive and more luminous than clumps without radio emission. This is likely because the most massive clumps evolve so rapidly that a Hyper-Compact H ii or UCH ii region is the first visible tracer of star formation. The gas mass to submm/infrared luminosity relation for the combined sample was found to be L ∝ M 0.68, considerably shallower than expected for massive main-sequence stars. This implies that the mass of the clumps is comparable to, or greater than, the mass of the stellar content. We also find that the mass of the hot core is correlated with the mass of the clump in which it is embedded.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)323-339
Number of pages17
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • ISM: abundances
  • ISM: molecules
  • Stars: formation
  • Stars: pre-main-sequence
  • Surveys


Dive into the research topics of 'Physical and chemical conditions in methanol maser selected hot cores and UCH ii regions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this