In a survey of Swedish physiotherapists working in neurology, the treatment of individuals following stroke was found to be essentially praxis-oriented (Nilsson and Nordholm, 1992). The present study replicated the Swedish survey in order to compare the responses of Australian physiotherapists with those of their Swedish colleagues. The questionnaire, designed to establish choice of treatment, factors influencing and theoretical bases for the choice of treatment, and attitudes towards new methods, was sent to the 331 members of the Neurology Special Interest Group of the Australian Physiotherapy Association. The response rate was 72% Respondents viewed experience working with patients as the most important factor influencing current choice of treatment. As in the Swedish study, although the respondents were able to describe their treatment choices, they had difficulty explaining the underlying theoretical basis for their choice. Difficulty providing a scientific and rational explanation for intervention may have implications for the future development of physiotherapy as a clinical science.