The success of a screening programme for cancer depends on the sensitivity of the tests used and on the proportion of the target population that comes forward for screening. To assess the value of digital rectal screening and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement as screening measures, the 814 men in a city general practice aged between 55 and 70 were recruited in one of five different ways. Men with a palpably suspicious prostate or a serum PSA greater than 4 ng/ml were referred for transrectal ultrasonography and, if indicated, biopsy. 472 men (58%) were screened; of these 68 underwent transrectal ultrasonography and 29 biopsy. In 7 the biopsy specimen showed carcinoma. Serum PSA was better than digital examination as a screening test-all men with prostate cancer had raised concentrations of serum PSA, whereas only 1 had a palpably abnormal prostate. All 7 had localised disease, and 5 underwent radical prostatectomy. The best methods of patient recruitment were to send an appointment for screening and to "tag" the patient's notes.