Beneficial microbes have a positive impact on the productivity and fitness of the host plant. A better understanding of the biological impacts and underlying mechanisms by which the host derives these benefits will help to address concerns around global food production and security. The recent development of omics-based technologies has broadened our understanding of the molecular aspects of beneficial plant–microbe symbiosis. Specifically, proteomics has led to the identification and characterization of several novel symbiosis-specific and symbiosis-related proteins and post-translational modifications that play a critical role in mediating symbiotic plant–microbe interactions and have helped assess the underlying molecular aspects of the symbiotic relationship. Integration of proteomic data with other "omics" data can provide valuable information to assess hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanism of symbiosis and help define the factors affecting the outcome of symbiosis. Herein, an update is provided on the current and potential applications of symbiosis-based "omic" approaches to dissect different aspects of symbiotic plant interactions. The application of proteomics, metaproteomics, and secretomics as enabling approaches for the functional analysis of plant-associated microbial communities is also discussed.