Pluricentricity and codification in World English

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This chapter examines the relationship between English as a pluricentric language with multiple varieties and the instruments of codification that stabilize the variation within their individual lexica. It compares the different types of dictionaries published for settler Englishes (Australian, New Zealand, Canadian, US) with those published for indigenized Englishes (South Africa, India, Singapore, the Philippines), finding that the former have several types of dictionaries (historical and contemporary, with partial or comprehensive coverage of the lexicon), whereas the indigenized varieties have few with limited coverage of the varietal lexicon. Other codificatory instruments, e.g. style manuals, are found with settler varieties but not indigenized ones. The range of such instruments for settler varieties thus correlates with their advanced stage of evolution (beyond endonormativity). The research shows that only those dictionaries which are produced by regionally based lexicographers are indicators of endonormativity. Dictionaries compiled by foreign/international publishers are associated with varieties that have yet to attain their endonormativity.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEnglish and Spanish
Subtitle of host publicationworld languages in interaction
EditorsDanae Perez, Marianne Hundt, Johannes Kabatek, Daniel Schreier
Place of PublicationCambridge, UK
PublisherCambridge University Press (CUP)
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)9781108623469
ISBN (Print)9781108486040, 9781108736978
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • codification
  • dictionaries
  • English
  • endonormativity
  • IDG strand
  • pluricentricity
  • standardization
  • STL strand


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