There is an increasing interest in how nested positive indirect interactions involving at least three species maintain community structure. Recent research shows that positive indirect effects can strongly influence community structure, organisation and functioning. It is thus important to understand and identify positive indirect effects for the purpose of predicting system responses to certain perturbations. In order to investigate indirect effects, experimental manipulations must be carried out within the entire framework of the community of interest. Hence, often due to logistical difficulties, indirect effects, especially those that yield positive results, have been less studied. Here we present a synthesis of current information on patterns of positive indirect effects and review and compare recently conducted experimental studies in marine herbivores and algae.
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