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Integrons are bacterial genetic elements that can capture mobile gene cassettes. They are mostly known for their role in the spread of antibiotic resistance cassettes, contributing significantly to the global resistance crisis. These resistance cassettes likely originated from sedentary chromosomal integrons, having subsequently been acquired and disseminated by mobilised integrons. However, their taxonomic and environmental origins are unknown. Here, we use cassette recombination sites (attCs) to predict the origins of those resistance cassettes now spread by mobile integrons. We modelled the structure and sequence homology of 1,978 chromosomal attCs from 11 different taxa. Using these models, we show that at least 27% of resistance cassettes have attCs that are structurally conserved among one of three taxa (Xanthomonadales, Spirochaetes and Vibrionales). Indeed, we found some resistance cassettes still residing in sedentary chromosomal integrons of the predicted taxa. Further, we show that attCs cluster according to host environment rather than host phylogeny, allowing us to assign their likely environmental sources. For example, the majority of β-lactamases and aminoglycoside acetyltransferases, the two most prevalent resistance cassettes, appear to have originated from marine environments. Together, our data represent the first evidence of the taxonomic and environmental origins of resistance cassettes spread by mobile integrons.
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 9 Aug 2021|
Bibliographical noteCopyright the Author(s) 2021. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.
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- 1 Finished
Peril and promise: Origins and spread of integron gene cassettes
1/01/20 → 31/12/22