Prediction of independent walking in people who are nonambulatory early after stroke: a systematic review

Elisabeth Preston*, Louise Ada, Rosalyn Stanton, Niruthikha Mahendran, Catherine M. Dean

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and Purpose: One systematic review has examined factors that predict walking outcome at one month in initially nonambulatory patients after stroke. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine, in nonambulatory people within a month of stroke, which factors predict independent walking at 3, 6, and 12 months. Methods: Prognostic factors: Any factors measured within one month after stroke with the aim of predicting independent walking. Outcome of interest: Independent walking defined as walking with or without an aid but with no human assistance. Results: Fifteen studies comprising 2344 nonambulatory participants after stroke were included. Risk of bias was low in 7 studies and moderate in 8 studies. Individual meta-analyses of 2 to 4 studies were performed to calculate the pooled estimate of the odds ratio for 12 prognostic factors. Younger age (odds ratio [OR], 3.4, P<0.001), an intact corticospinal tract (OR, 8.3, P<0.001), good leg strength (OR, 5.0, P<0.001), no cognitive impairment (OR, 3.5, P<0.001), no neglect (OR, 2.4, P=0.006), continence (OR, 2.3, P<0.001), good sitting (OR, 7.9, P<0.001), and independence in activities of daily living (OR 10.5, P<0.001) predicted independent walking at 3 months. Younger age (OR, 2.1, P<0.001), continence (OR, 13.8, P<0.001), and good sitting (OR, 19.1, P<0.001) predicted independent walking at 6 months. There were insufficient data at 12 months. Conclusions: Younger age, an intact corticospinal tract, good leg strength, continence, no cognitive impairment, no neglect, good sitting, and independence in activities of daily living in patients who are nonambulatory early after stroke predict independent walking at 3 months. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/; Unique identifier: CRD42018108794.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3217-3224
Number of pages8
JournalStroke
Volume52
Issue number10
Early online date9 Jul 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • activities of daily living
  • gait
  • prognosis
  • stroke
  • systematic review
  • walking

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