Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury

Kay Müller*, Tor Ingebrigtsen, Tom Wilsgaard, Gry Wikran, Toril Fagerheim, Bertil Romner, Knut Waterloo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between predictors and outcomes, and especially to identify predictors influencing the time trend in recovery after mild traumatic brain injury. METHODS: We included 59 patients with mild head injury in a prospective study. They underwent comprehensive assessment with neurological and neuroradiological examinations, serum S-100B analysis, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping. Neuropsychological testing was performed before and 6 months after discharge. Linear mixed models were used to assess associations between baseline predictors and neurocognitive performance and its change. RESULTS: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 μg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not. There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-ε4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement. CONCLUSION: The presence of the APOE-ε4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)698-704
Number of pages7
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain trauma
  • Neuropsychological assessment
  • Risk factors in epidemiology


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