Pregnancy loss in the Philippines

Metta Kuning*, Don McNeil, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    In this cross-sectional study, 8,481 women aged 15-49 who had at least one pregnancy outcome were considered. This study aimed to examine the characteristics of Filipino women having had a pregnancy loss, and to test the association between domestic violence and pregnancy loss. To control for the confounding effect of the number of pregnancies, the sample was divided into seven groups classified by the number of pregnancies. The risk factors considered were demographic characters (age and partner's age, marital status, and place of residence), socioeconomic status (education and partner's education, having a paid helper at home, having a say in how income was spent), domestic violence (physical abuse and forced sex), sexual behavior of partner, whether the pregnancy was wanted, and disease history (tuberculosis, diabetes, hypertension, malaria, hepatitis, kidney disease, heart disease, anemia, goiter and other medical problems). The major risk factors were found to be physical abuse, region, faithfulness of partners, hypertension, hepatitis, kidney disease, anemia, and the other medical problems, respectively. The risk of pregnancy loss for the women suffering domestic violence was 1.59 (95%CI 1.28-1.97) times higher than for the women who did not. Women aged 15-19 years had a much higher risk of pregnancy loss than the other age groups (OR=1.49, 95%CI 1.22-1.82). There were similar risk for women aged 20-24 years (OR=1.08, 95%CI 0.94-1.25) and 35-39 years (OR=1.05, 95%CI 0.92-1.19). No association emerged with marital status, socioeconomic status, forced sex, the number of partners, unwanted pregnancy, tuberculosis, diabetes, malaria, heart disease, and goiter. Although women's age, partner's age, residence, women's education, partner's education, and paid helper at home were significantly associated with pregnancy loss, they were likely to be confounders rather than risk factors.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)433-442
    Number of pages10
    JournalSoutheast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2003


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