Prevalence and remediation of spatial processing disorder (SPD) in Indigenous children in regional Australia

Sharon Cameron*, Harvey Dillon, Helen Glyde, Sujita Kanthan, Anna Kania

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of spatial processing disorder (SPD) in the Indigenous Australian population and the benefit of and logistical issues arising from remediation of the disorder. Design: Participants were assessed for SPD with the Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences test (LiSN-S). Participants diagnosed with SPD were instructed to use the LiSN & Learn auditory training software until 100 games had been completed. Study sample: Participants were 144 Indigenous Australian children (aged between 6;0 [years;months] and 12;2). Results: Ten participants (6.9%) presented with SPD. Nine took part in the auditory training study. Post-training LiSN-S performance improved on average by 0.9 population standard deviations (1.4 dB). There was a significant correlation (r = 0.71, p = 0.031, η2 = 0.51) between total number of LiSN & Learn games played (mean = 65, SD = 27) and improvement in LiSN-S performance. Teachers rated all participants as improving in their listening abilities post-intervention. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of SPD in the Indigenous Australian population. LiSN & Learn training is effective in remediating SPD in this population and is considered a beneficial intervention by teachers, however improvement in spatial processing is dependent on training program uptake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)326-335
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Audiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Chronic otitis media
  • Deficit-specific auditory training
  • Spatial processing disorder


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