Purpose: To examine the prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) presenting for anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy.
Methods: In a clinic-based cohort of 547 patients with nAMD who presented for treatment, the Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression 10-point scale (CES-D-10) and Mental Health Index (MHI) component of the 36-item Short Form Survey were administered to assess for the presence of depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for factors associated with an increased likelihood of depressive symptoms.
Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 42.04% and 31.78% as per the CES-D-10 and MHI scales, respectively. Poor self-rated health (SRH) is associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms [multivariable-adjusted OR: 3.00 (95% CI 1.90–4.73) for CES-D-10; OR: 2.67 (95% CI 1.67–4.28) for MHI]. Impaired activities of daily living (ADLs) [multivariable-adjusted OR: 2.62 (95% CI 1.56–4.38) for CES-D-10; OR: 3.59 (95% CI 2.10–6.15) for MHI] and a visual function score within the two lowest quartiles were also associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms using both scales.
Conclusion: A high prevalence of depressive symptoms was observed among nAMD patients presenting for treatment. Poorer SRH, ADL impairment and reduced visual function were associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms.
- macular degeneration
- older adults
- self-rated health
- activities of daily living
- visual function
- functional impairment