Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Animut Alebel, Amsalu Taye Wondemagegn, Cheru Tesema, Getiye Dejenu Kibret, Fasil Wagnew, Pammla Petrucka, Amit Arora, Amare Demise Ayele, Mulunesh Alemayehu, Setegn Eshetie

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Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus are significant global public health challenges. In Sub-Saharan Africa, study findings regarding prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst tuberculosis patients have been inconsistent and highly variable. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis estimates the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: Four international databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Cochrane Library) were systematically searched. We included all observational studies reporting the prevalence of DM among TB patients in Sub-Saharan Africa. All necessary data for this review were extracted using a standardized data extraction format by two authors (CT and AA1). STATA Version 14 statistical software was employed to conduct meta-analysis. The Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test were used to assess the heterogeneity of the studies. Finally, a random effects meta-analysis model was computed to estimate the pooled prevalence of diabetes mellitus in TB patients. Besides, subgroup analysis was done based on different factors.

Results: In the meta-analysis, sixteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included. The findings of these 16 studies revealed that the pooled prevalence of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Sub-Saharan Africa was 9.0% (95% CI: 6.0, 12.0%). The highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients was found in Nigeria (15%), followed by Tanzania (11%), and then Ethiopia (10%). Besides, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among HIV infected TB patients was (8.9%) which is slightly higher than HIV uninfected (7.7%) TB patients.

Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Sub-Saharan Africa was significantly high. Moreover, this study found that there was a high prevalence of DM among HIV infected than uninfected TB patients. It is strongly recommended to screen for DM among TB patients and special emphasis should be given for early screening of DM among TB/HIV co-infected patients.
Original languageEnglish
Article number254
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Volume19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Mar 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2019. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

Keywords

  • Type1/type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Sub-Saharan Africa

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