In recent studies, the cyclical behavior of markups is examined, but the role of costs in determining markups is ignored. Here, a pricing equation is estimated that implicity measures the rate of change in markup as a function of aggregate demand growth, aggregate inflation and industry cost inflation. Results for 21 two-digit SIC industries in the U.S. over 1948 to 1979 show incomplete pass-through from cost into price, implying a negative relationship between cost and the markup. Aggregate inflation positively influences prices and markups. Aggregate demand negatively influences prices and markups in highly concentrated industries, but not otherwise.
- Business cycle
- Price-cost markups