Mangrove forests play an important role in maintaining water quality, mitigating climate change impacts, and providing a wide range of ecosystem services. Effective identification of mangrove species using remote-sensing images remains a challenge. The combinations of multi-source remote-sensing datasets (with different spectral/spatial resolution) are beneficial to the improvement of mangrove tree species discrimination. In this paper, various combinations of remote-sensing datasets including Sentinel-1 dual-polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Sentinel-2 multispectral, and Gaofen-3 full-polarimetric SAR data were used to classify the mangrove communities in Xuan Thuy National Park, Vietnam. The mixture of mangrove communities consisting of small and shrub mangrove patches is generally difficult to separate using low/medium spatial resolution. To alleviate this problem, we propose to use label distribution learning (LDL) to provide the probabilistic mapping of tree species, including Sonneratia caseolaris (SC), Kandelia obovata (KO), Aegiceras corniculatum (AC), Rhizophora stylosa (RS), and Avicennia marina (AM). The experimental results show that the best classification performance was achieved by an integration of Sentinel-2 and Gaofen-3 datasets, demonstrating that full-polarimetric Gaofen-3 data is superior to the dual-polarimetric Sentinel-1 data for mapping mangrove tree species in the tropics.
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- mangrove species mapping
- label distribution learning