Processes and timescales of magma genesis and differentiation leading to the great tambora eruption in 1815

Ralf Gertisser*, Stephen Self, Louise L. Thomas, Heather K. Handley, Peter Van Calsteren, John A. Wolff

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


The cataclysmic eruption of Tambora volcano (Sumbawa, Indonesia) in 1815 has long been recognized as one of the largest explosive eruptions in historical time. It yielded extensive pyroclastic deposits from the emptying of a 30-33 km 3 trachyandesite (latite)- tephriphonolite (herein referred to as trachyandesite) magma body. The parental trachybasalt magma of the trachyandesite erupted in 1815 can be produced by ~2% partial melting of a garnet-free, Indian-type mid-ocean ridge basalt (I-MORB)-like mantle source contaminated with ~3% fluids from altered oceanic crust and 51% sedimentary material, preserving small 238Uexcessesinthe Tambora rocks. Magmatic differentiation from primary trachybasalt to trachyandesite occurred during two-stage, polybaric differentiation at depth(s) around the Moho and in a shallow-level crustal magma reservoir, emplaced at a maximum depth of ~7·5 km (and, possibly, as shallow as ~2·3 km). This crustal reservoir grew by influx of basaltic trachyandesite (shoshonite) magma, which originated predominantly by partial crystallization of primary trachybasalt in the inferred deep reservoir. Subsequent magmatic differentiation dominated by fractional crystallization, magma recharge-mixing and convection over timescales of ~4000-4500 years led to the trachyandesitic (and ultimately phonolitic) melts erupted in 1815. Highly calcic, corroded plagioclase crystals in 226Ra- 230Th equilibrium (48000 years old) provide physical evidence for incorporation of 'antecrystic' material into the 1815 magma. Magma accumulation and differentiation at shallow depth prior to the eruption were accompanied by continuous degassing of sulphur (and other volatile species), which is thought not to have accumulated within or towards the top of the magma reservoir to contribute to the volatile budget of the eruption, but to have escaped to the surface passively through the permeable wall rocks.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberegr062
Pages (from-to)271-297
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Petrology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012


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