Lymphocyte‐like hemocytes (LLCs) of solitary tunicates proliferate in response to allogeneic stimuli. In vitro labeling of proliferative hemocytes from the solitary species Styela clava revealed significantly greater proliferative activity among individuals immunized with allogeneic tissue as opposed to autogeneically primed and naïve animals. Enhanced proliferation was restricted to discrete crypts of dividing cells within the body wall of recipients. Here, increased proliferative activity was specifically associated with LLCs. These data support previous results which implicated LLC activity with immunological memory that is evident in allograft rejection. Hence, it is postulated that adaptive histoincompatibility responses in solitary tunicates depend upon the specific proliferation of immunocompetent cells.