Lipoproteins are supramolecular assemblies of proteins and lipids with dynamic characteristics critically linked to their biological functions as plasma lipid transporters and lipid exchangers. Among them, spherical high-density lipoproteins are the most abundant forms of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human plasma, active participants in reverse cholesterol transport, and associated with reduced development of atherosclerosis. Here, we employed elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to determine the average particle dynamics and protein backbone local mobility of physiologically competent discoidal and spherical HDL particles reconstituted with human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Our EINS measurements indicated that discoidal HDL was more dynamic than spherical HDL at ambient temperatures, in agreement with their lipid-protein composition. Combining small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation and MS cross-linking, we showed earlier that the most likely organization of the three apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) chains in spherical HDL is a combination of a hairpin monomer and a helical antiparallel dimer. Here, we corroborated those findings with kinetic studies, employing hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Many overlapping apoA-I digested peptides exhibited bimodal HDX kinetics behavior, suggesting that apoA-I regions with the same amino acid composition located on different apoA-I chains had different conformations and/or interaction environments.
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- apolipoprotein A-I
- high-density lipoprotein
- chemical cross-linking
- MS cross-linking
- hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry
- elastic incoherent neutron scattering
- thermal neutron
- lipoprotein dynamics
- lipoprotein softness
- protein backbone dynamics