Protein phosphorylation plays a central role in many biological and biomedical phenomena. In this, while a brief overview of the occurrence and function of protein phosphorylation is given, the primary focus is on studies related to the detection and analysis of phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro. We focus on phosphorylation of serine, threonine and tyrosine, the most commonly phosphorylated amino acids in eukaryotes. Technologies such as radiolabelling, antibody recognition, chromatographic methods (HPLC, TLC), electrophoresis, Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry are reviewed. We consider the speed, simplicity and sensitivity of tools for detection and identification of protein phosphorylation, as well as quantitation and site characterisation. The limitations of currently available methods are summarised.
- amino acids
- phosphoamino acids