Recently, proteomics studies have provided important information on the role of proteins in health and disease. In the domain of inflammatory bowel disease, proteomics has shed important light on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of inflammation and has contributed to the discovery of some putative clinical biomarkers of disease activity. By being able to obtain a large number of specimens from multiple sites and control for confounding environmental, genetic, and metabolic factors, proteomics studies using animal models of colitis offered an alternative approach to human studies. Our aim is to review the information and lessons acquired so far from the use of proteomics in animal models of colitis. These studies helped understand the importance of different proteins at different stages of the disease and unraveled the different pathways that are activated or inhibited during the inflammatory process. Expressed proteins related to inflammation, cellular structure, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and energy depletion advanced the knowledge about the reaction of intestinal cells to inflammation and repair. The role of mesenteric lymphocytes, exosomes, and the intestinal mucosal barrier was emphasized in the inflammatory process. In addition, studies in animal models revealed mechanisms of the beneficial effects of some therapeutic interventions and foods or food components on intestinal inflammation by monitoring changes in protein expression and paved the way for some new possible inflammatory pathways to target in the future. Advances in proteomics technology will further clarify the interaction between intestinal microbiota and IBD pathogenesis and investigate the gene-environmental axis of IBD etiology.
- Animal models of colitis, inflammation
- Inflammatory bowel disease