Orthopedic implants, such as screws, are provided in a non-sterile state and must be reprocessed before each use, therefore they may be subjected to multiple reprocessing cycles until they are implanted in the patient. The effect of these various reprocessing cycles on the quality and safety of these implants has been a subject of concern and discussion around the world. In this narrative review, we discuss the four main challenges associated with supplying these non-sterile implants to the same standard, with respect to their quality and safety, as implants that are provided sterile: microbiological contamination (focusing on biofilm), non-microbiological contamination, surface damage, and their acquisition in surgical trays from loaner companies.
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- prostheses and implants
- equipment contamination