Psychometric properties of the body dysmorphic disorder-dimensional scale

Fiona Macfarlane, Aileen Luo, Karen Moses, Angela Russell, Jacqui Cheyne, Andrea Del Pozo de Bolger, Bethany M. Wootton*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The Body Dysmorphic Disorder-Dimensional scale (BDD-D) is a new measure of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms. Developed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fifth Edition) Obsessive–Compulsive and Related Disorders subworkgroup, the five-item scale aids in the dimensional assessment of BDD. Methods: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the BDD-D in a community sample. A total of 266 participants completed the study. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the BDD-D demonstrates a unidimensional structure (Standardised Root Mean Square Residual =.03 and Comparative Fit Index =.99). The measure also showed strong internal consistency (α =.92) and good convergent validity with the Yale Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale Modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The BDD-D demonstrated good test–retest reliability (rs =.86) in a subset of the original sample who completed the measure at two time-points (n = 46). Similarly, fair equivalence between online administration and pen-and-paper administration formats were also noted (rs =.78) for a sample who completed the measure using two different administration formats (n = 29). Conclusions: Overall, the BDD-D appears to be a brief, reliable measure of BDD symptomology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-122
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Psychologist
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • BDD-D
  • body dysmorphic disorder
  • dimensional scale
  • DSM-5
  • psychometric properties


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