Gender differences in psychosocial adjustment to infertility and its treatment were evaluated amongst a cross-sectional sample of 330 couples, of whom 113 were first time participants and 217 were repeat cycle couples. Whilst 30% of both husbands and wives experienced clinically elevated anxiety regardless of stage of treatment; repeat cycle women (25%) faced the further risk of developing clinically severe depressive symptoms. Significant differences in the amount of care and control received from their spouse and in the degree they suppressed their emotions were reported amongst repeat cycle couples. Any clinical implications of differences in male-female caring styles are discussed within the IVF context. Our results suggest that interventions intended not only to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms, but also to facilitate ongoing psychosocial functioning, should be implemented for couples at different stages of IVF/ET treatment.