P‐T‐X (CO2) conditions in mafic and calc‐silicate hornfelses from Oberon, New South Wales, Australia


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Abstract The Rockley Volcanics from near Oberon, New South Wales occur within the aureole of the Carboniferous Bathurst Batholith and have been contact metamorphosed at P ∼ 100 ± 50MPa (10.5kbar) and a maximum T ∼ 565°C in the presence of a C–O–H fluid. Prior to contact metamorphism the volcanics were regionally metamorphosed and altered with the extensive development of actinolite, chlorite, plagioclase, quartz and calcite. The contact metamorphosed equivalents of these rocks have been subdivided into: Ca‐poor (cordierite + gedrite), Mg‐rich (amphibole + olivine + spinel), mafic (amphibole + plagioclase) and Ca‐rich (amphibole + garnet + diopside; diopside + plagioclase; garnet + diopside + wollastonite) rocks. The chemistry of the minerals in the hornfelses was controlled by the bulk rock chemistry and fluid composition. Pargasites and hastingsites as well as an unusual phlogopite with blue green pleochroism, are found in Ca‐rich hornfelses. A comparison of the assemblages with experimentally derived equilibria suggests that the fluid phase associated with the Ca‐rich hornfelses was water‐rich (Xco2= 0.1 to 0.3) while that associated with the Mg‐rich hornfelses was enriched in CO2 (Xco2 > 0.7). The different hornfels types have reacted to contact metamorphism independently in both their solid and fluid chemistries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-163
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Metamorphic Geology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1984
Externally publishedYes


  • contact metamorphism
  • Key‐words: calc‐silicate hornfelses
  • mafic hornfelses
  • New South Wales
  • P–T–X (CO) conditions


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