[Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) is a biologically active ACE2 metabolite of the endogenous cardiovascular peptide [Pyr1]apelin-13

Peiran Yang, Rhoda E. Kuc, Aimée L. Brame, Alex Dyson, Mervyn Singer, Robert C. Glen, Joseph Cheriyan, Ian B. Wilkinson, Anthony P. Davenport, Janet J. Maguire

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Aims: Apelin is a predicted substrate for ACE2, a novel therapeutic target. Our aim was to demonstrate the endogenous presence of the putative ACE2 product [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) in human cardiovascular tissues and to confirm it retains significant biological activity for the apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. The minimum active apelin fragment was also investigated. Methods and Results: [Pyr1]apelin-13 incubated with recombinant human ACE2 resulted in de novo generation of [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) identified by mass spectrometry. Endogenous [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) was detected by immunostaining in human heart and lung localized to the endothelium. Expression was undetectable in lung from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In human heart [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pKi = 8.04 ± 0.06) and apelin-13(F13A) (pKi = 8.07 ± 0.24) competed with [125I]apelin-13 binding with nanomolar affinity, 4-fold lower than for [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pKi = 8.83 ± 0.06) whereas apelin-17 exhibited highest affinity (pKi = 9.63 ± 0.17). The rank order of potency of peptides to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP was apelin-17 (pD2 = 10.31 ± 0.28) > [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pD2 = 9.67 ± 0.04) ≥ apelin-13(F13A) (pD2 = 9.54 ± 0.05) > [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pD2 = 9.30 ± 0.06). The truncated peptide apelin-13(R10M) retained nanomolar potency (pD2 = 8.70 ± 0.04) but shorter fragments exhibited low micromolar potency. In a Β-arrestin recruitment assay the rank order of potency was apelin-17 (pD2 = 10.26 ± 0.09) >> [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pD2 = 8.43 ± 0.08) > apelin-13(R10M) (pD2 = 8.26 ± 0.17) > apelin-13(F13A) (pD2 = 7.98 ± 0.04) ≥ [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pD2 = 7.84 ± 0.06) >> shorter fragments (pD2 < 6). [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) and apelin-13(F13A) contracted human saphenous vein with similar sub-nanomolar potencies and [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) was a potent inotrope in paced mouse right ventricle and human atria. [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) elicited a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure in anesthetized rat and dose-dependent increase in forearm blood flow in human volunteers. Conclusions: We provide evidence that ACE2 cleaves [Pyr1]apelin-13 to [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) and this cleavage product is expressed in human cardiovascular tissues. We have demonstrated biological activity of [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) at the human and rodent apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. Our data show that reported enhanced ACE2 activity in cardiovascular disease should not significantly compromise the beneficial effects of apelin based therapies for example in PAH.

LanguageEnglish
Article number92
Pages1-14
Number of pages14
JournalFrontiers in Neuroscience
Volume11
Issue numberFEB
DOIs
StatePublished - 28 Feb 2017
Externally publishedYes

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Peptides
apelin-13 peptide
Arrestin
Lung
Saphenous Vein
Colforsin
Pulmonary Hypertension
Forearm
Heart Ventricles
Endothelium
Volunteers
Rodentia
Mass Spectrometry
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Pressure

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2017. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

Cite this

Yang, P., Kuc, R. E., Brame, A. L., Dyson, A., Singer, M., Glen, R. C., ... Maguire, J. J. (2017). [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) is a biologically active ACE2 metabolite of the endogenous cardiovascular peptide [Pyr1]apelin-13. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11(FEB), 1-14. [92]. DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00092
Yang, Peiran ; Kuc, Rhoda E. ; Brame, Aimée L. ; Dyson, Alex ; Singer, Mervyn ; Glen, Robert C. ; Cheriyan, Joseph ; Wilkinson, Ian B. ; Davenport, Anthony P. ; Maguire, Janet J./ [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) is a biologically active ACE2 metabolite of the endogenous cardiovascular peptide [Pyr1]apelin-13. In: Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2017 ; Vol. 11, No. FEB. pp. 1-14
@article{2ff0b39d0d4f4a76aece568f84ba9e3d,
title = "[Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) is a biologically active ACE2 metabolite of the endogenous cardiovascular peptide [Pyr1]apelin-13",
abstract = "Aims: Apelin is a predicted substrate for ACE2, a novel therapeutic target. Our aim was to demonstrate the endogenous presence of the putative ACE2 product [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) in human cardiovascular tissues and to confirm it retains significant biological activity for the apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. The minimum active apelin fragment was also investigated. Methods and Results: [Pyr1]apelin-13 incubated with recombinant human ACE2 resulted in de novo generation of [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) identified by mass spectrometry. Endogenous [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) was detected by immunostaining in human heart and lung localized to the endothelium. Expression was undetectable in lung from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In human heart [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pKi = 8.04 ± 0.06) and apelin-13(F13A) (pKi = 8.07 ± 0.24) competed with [125I]apelin-13 binding with nanomolar affinity, 4-fold lower than for [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pKi = 8.83 ± 0.06) whereas apelin-17 exhibited highest affinity (pKi = 9.63 ± 0.17). The rank order of potency of peptides to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP was apelin-17 (pD2 = 10.31 ± 0.28) > [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pD2 = 9.67 ± 0.04) ≥ apelin-13(F13A) (pD2 = 9.54 ± 0.05) > [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pD2 = 9.30 ± 0.06). The truncated peptide apelin-13(R10M) retained nanomolar potency (pD2 = 8.70 ± 0.04) but shorter fragments exhibited low micromolar potency. In a Β-arrestin recruitment assay the rank order of potency was apelin-17 (pD2 = 10.26 ± 0.09) >> [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pD2 = 8.43 ± 0.08) > apelin-13(R10M) (pD2 = 8.26 ± 0.17) > apelin-13(F13A) (pD2 = 7.98 ± 0.04) ≥ [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pD2 = 7.84 ± 0.06) >> shorter fragments (pD2 < 6). [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) and apelin-13(F13A) contracted human saphenous vein with similar sub-nanomolar potencies and [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) was a potent inotrope in paced mouse right ventricle and human atria. [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) elicited a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure in anesthetized rat and dose-dependent increase in forearm blood flow in human volunteers. Conclusions: We provide evidence that ACE2 cleaves [Pyr1]apelin-13 to [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) and this cleavage product is expressed in human cardiovascular tissues. We have demonstrated biological activity of [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) at the human and rodent apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. Our data show that reported enhanced ACE2 activity in cardiovascular disease should not significantly compromise the beneficial effects of apelin based therapies for example in PAH.",
keywords = "apelin, apelin receptor, [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12), ACE2, human heart, pulmonary arterial hypertension, forearm plethysmography, biased signaling",
author = "Peiran Yang and Kuc, {Rhoda E.} and Brame, {Aim{\'e}e L.} and Alex Dyson and Mervyn Singer and Glen, {Robert C.} and Joseph Cheriyan and Wilkinson, {Ian B.} and Davenport, {Anthony P.} and Maguire, {Janet J.}",
note = "Copyright the Author(s) 2017. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
day = "28",
doi = "10.3389/fnins.2017.00092",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
pages = "1--14",
journal = "Frontiers in Neuroscience",
issn = "1662-4548",
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}

Yang, P, Kuc, RE, Brame, AL, Dyson, A, Singer, M, Glen, RC, Cheriyan, J, Wilkinson, IB, Davenport, AP & Maguire, JJ 2017, '[Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) is a biologically active ACE2 metabolite of the endogenous cardiovascular peptide [Pyr1]apelin-13' Frontiers in Neuroscience, vol 11, no. FEB, 92, pp. 1-14. DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00092

[Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) is a biologically active ACE2 metabolite of the endogenous cardiovascular peptide [Pyr1]apelin-13. / Yang, Peiran; Kuc, Rhoda E.; Brame, Aimée L.; Dyson, Alex; Singer, Mervyn; Glen, Robert C.; Cheriyan, Joseph; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Davenport, Anthony P.; Maguire, Janet J.

In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol. 11, No. FEB, 92, 28.02.2017, p. 1-14.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) is a biologically active ACE2 metabolite of the endogenous cardiovascular peptide [Pyr1]apelin-13

AU - Yang,Peiran

AU - Kuc,Rhoda E.

AU - Brame,Aimée L.

AU - Dyson,Alex

AU - Singer,Mervyn

AU - Glen,Robert C.

AU - Cheriyan,Joseph

AU - Wilkinson,Ian B.

AU - Davenport,Anthony P.

AU - Maguire,Janet J.

N1 - Copyright the Author(s) 2017. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

PY - 2017/2/28

Y1 - 2017/2/28

N2 - Aims: Apelin is a predicted substrate for ACE2, a novel therapeutic target. Our aim was to demonstrate the endogenous presence of the putative ACE2 product [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) in human cardiovascular tissues and to confirm it retains significant biological activity for the apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. The minimum active apelin fragment was also investigated. Methods and Results: [Pyr1]apelin-13 incubated with recombinant human ACE2 resulted in de novo generation of [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) identified by mass spectrometry. Endogenous [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) was detected by immunostaining in human heart and lung localized to the endothelium. Expression was undetectable in lung from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In human heart [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pKi = 8.04 ± 0.06) and apelin-13(F13A) (pKi = 8.07 ± 0.24) competed with [125I]apelin-13 binding with nanomolar affinity, 4-fold lower than for [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pKi = 8.83 ± 0.06) whereas apelin-17 exhibited highest affinity (pKi = 9.63 ± 0.17). The rank order of potency of peptides to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP was apelin-17 (pD2 = 10.31 ± 0.28) > [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pD2 = 9.67 ± 0.04) ≥ apelin-13(F13A) (pD2 = 9.54 ± 0.05) > [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pD2 = 9.30 ± 0.06). The truncated peptide apelin-13(R10M) retained nanomolar potency (pD2 = 8.70 ± 0.04) but shorter fragments exhibited low micromolar potency. In a Β-arrestin recruitment assay the rank order of potency was apelin-17 (pD2 = 10.26 ± 0.09) >> [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pD2 = 8.43 ± 0.08) > apelin-13(R10M) (pD2 = 8.26 ± 0.17) > apelin-13(F13A) (pD2 = 7.98 ± 0.04) ≥ [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pD2 = 7.84 ± 0.06) >> shorter fragments (pD2 < 6). [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) and apelin-13(F13A) contracted human saphenous vein with similar sub-nanomolar potencies and [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) was a potent inotrope in paced mouse right ventricle and human atria. [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) elicited a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure in anesthetized rat and dose-dependent increase in forearm blood flow in human volunteers. Conclusions: We provide evidence that ACE2 cleaves [Pyr1]apelin-13 to [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) and this cleavage product is expressed in human cardiovascular tissues. We have demonstrated biological activity of [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) at the human and rodent apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. Our data show that reported enhanced ACE2 activity in cardiovascular disease should not significantly compromise the beneficial effects of apelin based therapies for example in PAH.

AB - Aims: Apelin is a predicted substrate for ACE2, a novel therapeutic target. Our aim was to demonstrate the endogenous presence of the putative ACE2 product [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) in human cardiovascular tissues and to confirm it retains significant biological activity for the apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. The minimum active apelin fragment was also investigated. Methods and Results: [Pyr1]apelin-13 incubated with recombinant human ACE2 resulted in de novo generation of [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) identified by mass spectrometry. Endogenous [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) was detected by immunostaining in human heart and lung localized to the endothelium. Expression was undetectable in lung from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In human heart [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pKi = 8.04 ± 0.06) and apelin-13(F13A) (pKi = 8.07 ± 0.24) competed with [125I]apelin-13 binding with nanomolar affinity, 4-fold lower than for [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pKi = 8.83 ± 0.06) whereas apelin-17 exhibited highest affinity (pKi = 9.63 ± 0.17). The rank order of potency of peptides to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP was apelin-17 (pD2 = 10.31 ± 0.28) > [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pD2 = 9.67 ± 0.04) ≥ apelin-13(F13A) (pD2 = 9.54 ± 0.05) > [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pD2 = 9.30 ± 0.06). The truncated peptide apelin-13(R10M) retained nanomolar potency (pD2 = 8.70 ± 0.04) but shorter fragments exhibited low micromolar potency. In a Β-arrestin recruitment assay the rank order of potency was apelin-17 (pD2 = 10.26 ± 0.09) >> [Pyr1]apelin-13 (pD2 = 8.43 ± 0.08) > apelin-13(R10M) (pD2 = 8.26 ± 0.17) > apelin-13(F13A) (pD2 = 7.98 ± 0.04) ≥ [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) (pD2 = 7.84 ± 0.06) >> shorter fragments (pD2 < 6). [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) and apelin-13(F13A) contracted human saphenous vein with similar sub-nanomolar potencies and [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) was a potent inotrope in paced mouse right ventricle and human atria. [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) elicited a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure in anesthetized rat and dose-dependent increase in forearm blood flow in human volunteers. Conclusions: We provide evidence that ACE2 cleaves [Pyr1]apelin-13 to [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) and this cleavage product is expressed in human cardiovascular tissues. We have demonstrated biological activity of [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) at the human and rodent apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. Our data show that reported enhanced ACE2 activity in cardiovascular disease should not significantly compromise the beneficial effects of apelin based therapies for example in PAH.

KW - apelin

KW - apelin receptor

KW - [Pyr1]apelin-13(1–12)

KW - ACE2

KW - human heart

KW - pulmonary arterial hypertension

KW - forearm plethysmography

KW - biased signaling

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U2 - 10.3389/fnins.2017.00092

DO - 10.3389/fnins.2017.00092

M3 - Article

VL - 11

SP - 1

EP - 14

JO - Frontiers in Neuroscience

T2 - Frontiers in Neuroscience

JF - Frontiers in Neuroscience

SN - 1662-4548

IS - FEB

M1 - 92

ER -

Yang P, Kuc RE, Brame AL, Dyson A, Singer M, Glen RC et al. [Pyr1]apelin-13(1-12) is a biologically active ACE2 metabolite of the endogenous cardiovascular peptide [Pyr1]apelin-13. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2017 Feb 28;11(FEB):1-14. 92. Available from, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00092