Recent advances in wireless technologies have led to an increased deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for a plethora of diverse surveillance applications such as health, military, and environmental. However, sensor nodes in WSNs usually suffer from short device lifetime due to severe energy constraints and therefore, cannot guarantee to meet the Quality of Service (QoS) needs of various applications. This is proving to be a major hindrance to the widespread adoption of WSNs for such applications. Therefore, to extend the lifetime of WSNs, it is critical to optimize the energy usage in sensor nodes that are often deployed in remote and hostile terrains. To this effect, several energy management schemes have been proposed recently. Node scheduling is one such strategy that can prolong the lifetime of WSNs and also helps to balance the workload among the sensor nodes. In this article, we discuss on the energy management techniques of WSN with a particular emphasis on node scheduling and propose an energy management life-cycle model and an energy conservation pyramid to extend the network lifetime of WSNs. We have provided a detailed classification and evaluation of various node scheduling schemes in terms of their ability to fulfill essential QoS requirements, namely coverage, connectivity, fault tolerance, and security. We considered essential design issues such as network type, deployment pattern, sensing model in the classification process. Furthermore, we have discussed the operational characteristics of schemes with their related merits and demerits. We have compared the efficacy of a few well known graph-based scheduling schemes with suitable performance analysis graph. Finally, we study challenges in designing and implementing node scheduling schemes from a QoS perspective and outline open research problems.
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- energy management
- node scheduling