R&D intensity and carbon emissions in the G7: 1870–2014

Sefa Awaworyi Churchill, John Inekwe, Russell Smyth, Xibin Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

314 Citations (Scopus)


We examine the effect of research and development (R&D) intensity on carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions in the Group of Seven (G7) countries since the nineteenth century using a non-parametric panel data model. Our estimates suggest that the relationship between R&D and CO₂ emissions is time-varying. The estimated time-varying coefficient function of R&D was negative for three quarters of the period studied, but was positive for a 35-year period (1955–1990) during the second half of the twentieth century. Our non-parametric local linear estimates show that the common trend functions gradually increased for the first 110 years (1870–1980), but then flattened out and showed a slight decrease for the next three decades.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30 - 37
Number of pages8
JournalEnergy Economics
Publication statusPublished - May 2019


  • Carbon emissions
  • CO₂
  • Non-parametric model
  • Research and development
  • CO


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