Rapid mitigation of carrier-induced degradation in commercial silicon solar cells

Brett J. Hallam, Catherine E. Chan, Ran Chen, Sisi Wang, Jingjia Ji, Ly Mai, Malcolm D. Abbott, David N. R. Payne, Moonyong Kim, Daniel Chen, CheeMun Chong, Stuart R. Wenham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


We report on the progress for the understanding of carrier-induced degradation (CID) in p-type mono and multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells, and methods of mitigation. Defect formation is a key aspect to mitigating CID. Illuminated annealing can be used for both mono and mc-Si solar cells to reduce CID. The latest results of an 8-s UNSW advanced hydrogenation process applied to industrial p-type Czochralski PERC solar cells are shown with average efficiency enhancements of 1.1% absolute from eight different solar cell manufacturers. Results from three new industrial CID mitigation tools are presented, reducing CID to 0.8–1.1% relative, compared to 4.2% relative on control cells. Similar advanced hydrogenation processes can also be applied to multi-crystalline silicon passivated emitter with rear local contact (PERC) cells, however to date, the processes take longer and are less effective. Modifications to the firing processes can also suppress CID in multi-crystalline cells during subsequent illumination. The most stable results are achieved with a multi-stage process consisting of a second firing process at a reduced firing temperature, followed by extended illuminated annealing.
Original languageEnglish
Article number08MB13
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalJapanese Journal of Applied Physics
Issue number8S2
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes


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