The self-assembly of oligo(o-phenylenediamine) (OPD) into 1-D nanostructures on a macroscopic length scale was found when they were transferred from N-methyl pyrrolidone to deionized water. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate the morphology of the precipitates. Results showed that large amounts of OPD 1-D supertructures could be obtained through the simple reprecipitation route, and the length of the fibers could be tuned from microscale to macroscale by adjusting the ratio of two solvents. X-ray diffraction patterns and UV - vís spectra revealed that π-π interactions between OPD molecules that facilitated the formation of 1-D structures became predominant when they were transferred from a good solvent to a bad one. Accordingly, a possible formation mechanism was proposed.