The native and endemic vascular flora of Lord Howe Island (31°35′S 159°05′E) is assessed for rareness and threatened status using three axes-distribution, abundance and threat. Seven angiosperms are believed to have become extinct since 1853. Of the 118 native angiosperms 25 are rare, 3 endangered and 4 vulnerable. Of the 62 endemic angiosperms 9 are rare, 1 is vulnerable. Of the 26 native ferns 5 are rare, 1 is vulnerable. Of the 17 endemic ferns, 3 are rare, 2 are endangered and 1 is vulnerable. The rarest species, known from fewer than ten individuals, are recent invaders. Proposed reserves are sufficient to protect all species except three restricted to grazed swamps or estuaries.