Rates of morphological evolution are heterogeneous in Early Cretaceous birds

Min Wang, Graeme T. Lloyd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Early Cretaceous is a critical interval in the early history of birds. Exceptional fossils indicate that important evolutionary novelties such as a pygostyle and a keeled sternum had already arisen in Early Cretaceous taxa, bridging much of the morphological gap between Archaeopteryx and crown birds. However, detailed features of basal bird evolution remain obscure because of both the small sample of fossil taxa previously considered and a lack of quantitative studies assessing rates of morphological evolution. Here we apply a recently available phylogenetic method and associated sensitivity tests to a large data matrix of morphological characters to quantify rates of morphological evolution in Early Cretaceous birds. Our results reveal that although rates were highly heterogeneous between different Early Cretaceous avian lineages, consistent patterns of significantly high or low rates were harder to pinpoint. Nevertheless, evidence for accelerated evolutionary rates is strongest at the point when Ornithuromorpha (the clade comprises all extant birds and descendants from their most recent common ancestors) split from Enantiornithes (a diverse clade that went extinct at the end-Cretaceous), consistent with the hypothesis that this key split opened up new niches and ultimately led to greater diversity for these two dominant clades of Mesozoic birds.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20160214
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B : biological sciences
Volume283
Issue number1828
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2016

Keywords

  • Aves
  • Cretaceous
  • Evolutionary rates
  • Phylogeny
  • Tempo

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