The rational engineering of proteins is driven by contemporary needs for new and altered biomolecular forms. Utilizing manipulative procedures of molecular biology, it is relatively straightforward to alter protein structure and function to create mutated or fused sequences. We here give an overview of procedures and strategies for site-directed mutagenesis, construction of fusion proteins, and insertion of tags. The design of new protein constructs as well as their over-expression as recombinant products is considered. We also summarize approaches for the engineering of protein complexes by co-expression, a valuable route to generate bioactive multicomponent systems.