Object. Endogenous stem cells theoretically could replace lost tissue and repair deficits caused by syringes. In this study the authors quantitatively examined 1) whether neural progenitor cells exist in an adult rat model of posttraumatic syringomyelia (PTS); 2) and if so, how long an active population of progenitor cells can persist; 3) whether the cell population's location is associated with the syrinx; 4) the degree of differentiation of the progenitor cells; and 5) the phenotypic fate of the progenitor cells. Methods. Wistar rats were divided into intact, sham-operated, and experimental syrinx groups. Animals in each group were equally subdivided according to 4 time points: 7, 14, 28, and 56 days post-syrinx induction. Rats in the experimental syrinx group underwent a C-7 and T-1 laminectomy and then received 0.5 μl of a 24-mg/ml quisqualic acid spinal cord injection at the C-8 level to mimic an excitotoxic injury with an initial cyst, and 10 μl of a 250-mg/ ml kaolin injection into the subarachnoid space at the C-8 level to create arachnoiditis. The proliferation, distribution, and differentiation of endogenous progenitor cells were identified immunocytochemically. Results. The authors observed a 20-fold increase in progenitor cells excluding inflammatory cells in the 1st 2 weeks post-syrinx induction. The cells persisted for at least 56 days, and 80% of them were located in the gray matter along the border of cysts. They included neural multipotential progenitor cells, oligodendroglial progenitor cells, and astrocytes. Conclusions. Data in this study provide evidence for proliferation, distribution, and differentiation of endogenous progenitor cells in a model of PTS in adult rats. These progenitor cells proliferate rapidly, extend for long periods, and are mainly located in the gray matter along the border of syringes. Neural multipotential progenitor cells are expected to be associated with reparative and regenerative mechanisms of PTS. Glial cells are involved in the formation of a glial scar barrier that surrounds the syrinx and may prevent cyst enlargement. The authors' findings suggest that neural progenitor cells play a protective role in PTS.