Reading and spelling development across languages varying in orthographic consistency

do their paths cross?

George K. Georgiou*, Minna Torppa, Karin Landerl, Alain Desrochers, George Manolitsis, Peter F. de Jong, Rauno Parrila

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)


We examined the cross-lagged relations between reading and spelling in five alphabetic orthographies varying in consistency (English, French, Dutch, German, and Greek). Nine hundred and forty-one children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2 and were tested on word and pseudoword reading fluency and on spelling to dictation. Results indicated that the relations across languages were unidirectional: Earlier reading predicted subsequent spelling. However, we also found significant differences between languages in the strength of the effects of earlier reading on subsequent spelling. These findings suggest that, once children master decoding, the observed differences between languages are not related to the direction of the effects but to the strength of the effects from reading to spelling. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e266-e279
Number of pages14
JournalChild Development
Issue number2
Early online date25 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Reading and spelling development across languages varying in orthographic consistency: do their paths cross?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this