Projects per year
The detection of cytokines in body fluids, cells, tissues and organisms continues to attract considerable attention due to the importance of these key cell signaling molecules in biology and medicine. In this review, we describe recent advances in cytokine detection in the course of ongoing pursuit of new analytical approaches for these trace analytes with specific focus on immunosensing. We discuss recent elegant designs of sensing interface with improved performance with respect to sensitivity, selectivity, stability, simplicity, and the absence of sample matrix effects. Various immunosensing approaches based on multifunctional nanomaterials open novel opportunities for ultrasensitive detection of cytokines in body fluids in vitro and in vivo. Methodologies such as suspension arrays also known as bead assays together with optical fiber-based sensors, on their own or in combination with microfluidic devices will continue to have an important role to address the grand challenge of real-time in vivo multiplex cytokine detection.
- Real-time detection