Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with damage to the retinal blood vessels that lead eventually to vision loss. The existing treatments of DR are invasive, expensive, and cumbersome. To overcome challenges associated with existing therapies, various intraocular sustained release and novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) have been explored. Areas covered: The review discusses recently developed intraocular devices for sustained release of drugs as well as novel noninvasive drug delivery systems that have met a varying degree of success in local delivery of drugs to retinal circulation. Expert opinion: The intraocular devices have got very good success in providing sustained release of drugs in patients. The development of NDDS and their application through the ocular route has certainly provided an edge to treat DR over existing therapies such as anti-VEGF administration but their success rate is quite low. Moreover, most of them have proved to be effective only in animal models. In addition, the extent of targeting the drug to the retina still remains variable and unpredictable. The toxicity aspect of the NDDS has generally been neglected. In order to have successful commercialization of nanotechnology-based innovations well-designed clinical research studies need to be conducted to evaluate their clinical superiority over that of the existing formulations.
- Diabetic retinopathy
- intraocular devices
- novel drug delivery system
- vascular endothelial growth factor