Recent strategies to minimise fouling in electrochemical detection systems

Benjamin L. Hanssen, Shajahan Siraj, Danny K Y Wong*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    196 Citations (Scopus)


    Electrode fouling is a phenomenon that can severely affect the analytical characteristics of a technique or a sensor, such as sensitivity, detection limit, reproducibility, and overall reliability. Electrode fouling generally involves the passivation of an electrode surface by a fouling agent that forms an increasingly impermeable layer on the electrode, inhibiting the direct contact of an analyte of interest with the electrode surface for electron transfer. Some potential fouling agents include proteins, phenols, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and other biological molecules. Various antifouling strategies have been reported to reduce or eliminate electrode fouling. Most antifouling strategies exploit a protective layer or barrier on an electrode substrate to prevent the fouling agent from reaching the electrode surface. Although such strategies can be quite effective, they are inappropriate for systems in which the analyte itself is also the fouling agent. In such cases, other strategies must be used, including electrode surface modification and electrochemical activation. In this review, recent strategies to minimise and efforts to overcome electrode fouling across a diverse range of analytes and fouling agents will be presented.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-28
    Number of pages28
    JournalReviews in Analytical Chemistry
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2016


    • chemical fouling
    • fouling during neurotransmitter detection
    • strategies for minimising electrode fouling


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