Register variation in written contact varieties of English

a multidimensional analysis

Haidee Kruger, Bertus Van Rooy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)


Previous research suggests there are register differences between native and non-native varieties of English, as well as translated English. This article reports on a multidimensional (MD) analysis of register variation in the published written registers of 16 varieties of English, and tests expectations for register variation in contact varieties evident from existing research. The study finds that the effects of variety and register are largely independent of each other, indicating that overall, registers pattern in similar ways across varieties. register is the strongest factor accounting for variance in the data, but variety also contributes significantly to variation. Non-native varieties before phase four in the Dynamic Model (Schneider 2007) and translations draw more extensively on markers of formality than non-native varieties at phase four and native varieties. Contact varieties display fewer involvement features than native varieties. Persuasive strategies and reported speech are variable across varieties, suggesting local stylistic and cultural differences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-242
Number of pages29
JournalEnglish World-Wide
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • multidimensional analysis
  • register
  • ESL varieties
  • translation
  • contact varieties
  • formality
  • involvement

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