To investigate the association of noninvasive indices of arterial stiffness with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with primary hypertension, 547 (mean age 60 years, 63% males) hypertensive hospital inpatients were recruited, comprising 337 hypertensives without CKD and 210 hypertensives with CKD. Noninvasive arterial stiffness indices were obtained, including central arterial haemodynamics derived from the radial artery waveform using SphygmoCor V8.0 system, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), large and small artery elasticity indices (C1, C2 respectively). Intima-media thickness (IMT) was evaluated by ultrasonography. The diagnosis of CKD was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Compared with hypertension without CKD, hypertensive patients with CKD were older, had higher central systolic blood pressure, cfPWV, and IMT (all P < 0.01). With decreasing eGFR, cfPWV and augmentation index adjusted to heart rate of 75 bpm increased progressively whereas C2 decreased (P < 0.05) in subjects with CKD. In the overall population, cfPWV showed a significant trend of a negative association with eGFR (P = 0.04) after adjusting for age, gender, and brachial systolic blood pressure. Multiple logistic analysis showed that 1 SD (3 m/s) increase in cfPWV entailed a 1.35 (95% Cl: 1.018–1.790) times higher likelihood of the presence of CKD even after adjustment for confounding factors. The association of arterial stiffness and CKD suggests that cfPWV may be a potential hemodynamic index to evaluate cardiovascular risk in CKD patients with primary hypertension.