Relationships among perceptual-motor tasks: Tracing and copying

Marcia Bernbaum*, Jacqueline Goodnow, Elyse Lehman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Asked 39 kindergartners, 16 1st graders, 38 2nd graders, 16 4th graders, and 20 undergraduates to copy, trace, or point to the beginning of a set of shapes. The aim was to determine the extent to which sequential behavior (starting points and stroke progressions) was consistent across tasks. With one notable exception, behavior was consistent. The exception was the extent to which children started at the left rather than the right, a behavior that was far less frequent when tracing or pointing to the beginning of a shape than when copying. Results point to the feasibility of using sequential analyses to explore questions of generality and transfer on graphic tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)731-735
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1974
Externally publishedYes


  • copying vs tracing vs pointing tasks, consistency of starting points & stroke progressions, kindergartners & 1st & 2nd & 4th graders & college students


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