Reproduction of nearby sound sources using higher-order ambisonics with practical loudspeaker arrays

S. Favrot*, J. M. Buchholz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


In order to reproduce nearby sound sources with distant loudspeakers to a single listener, the near field compensated (NFC) method for higher-order Ambisonics (HOA) has been previously proposed. In practical realization, this method requires the use of regularization functions. This study analyzes the impact of two existing and a new proposed regularization function on the reproduced sound fields and on the main auditory cue for nearby sound sources outside the median plane, i.e, low-frequencies interaural level differences (ILDs). The proposed regularization function led to a better reproduction of point source sound fields compared to existing regularization functions for NFC-HOA. Measurements in realistic playback environments showed that, for very close sources, significant ILDs for frequencies above about 250 Hz can be reproduced with NFC-HOA and the proposed regularization function whereas the existing regularization functions failed to provide ILDs below 500 Hz. A listening test showed that these lower-frequency ILDs provided by the proposed regularization function lead to a significantly improved distance perception performance. This test also showed that the distance of virtual sources are perceived less accurately than corresponding physical sources when amplitude cues are not available.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-60
Number of pages13
JournalActa Acustica united with Acustica
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012


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